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Annu Rev Nutr. 2017 Aug 21;37:131-156. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064941.

Coffee, Caffeine, and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review.

Author information

1
Integrated Cancer Registry of Catania-Messina-Siracusa-Enna, Catania 95123, Italy; email: giuseppe.grosso@studium.unict.it.
2
NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, St. John's Innovation Centre, Cambridge CB4 0WS, United Kingdom.
3
Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania 95124, Italy; email: justyna.godos@uj.edu.pl , fgalvano@unict.it.
4
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115; email: egiovann@hsph.harvard.edu.
5
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.
6
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

Abstract

To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes. Of the 14 unique outcomes examined in the 20 selected meta-analyses of observational studies, caffeine was associated with a probable decreased risk of Parkinson's disease and type-2 diabetes and an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Of the 12 unique acute outcomes examined in the selected 9 meta-analyses of RCTs, coffee was associated with a rise in serum lipids, but this result was affected by significant heterogeneity, and caffeine was associated with a rise in blood pressure. Given the spectrum of conditions studied and the robustness of many of the results, these findings indicate that coffee can be part of a healthful diet.

KEYWORDS:

caffeine; cancer; cardiovascular disease; coffee; diabetes; neurodegenerative disease

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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