Send to

Choose Destination
Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Aug 3;11:353. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00353. eCollection 2017.

Guidelines for Assessment of Gait and Reference Values for Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Older Adults: The Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortiums Initiative.

Author information

Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital and Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, McGill UniversityMontreal, QC, Canada.
Dr. Joseph Kaufmann Chair in Geriatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, McGill UniversityMontreal, QC, Canada.
Centre of Excellence on Aging and Chronic Diseases of McGill Integrated University Health NetworkQC, Canada.
Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital and University of GenevaGeneva, Switzerland.
Division of Cognitive & Motor Aging, Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva UniversityBronx, NY, United States.
Geriatric Department, Liège University HospitalLiege, Belgium.
Laboratory of Human Motion Analysis, Liège UniversityLiege, Belgium.
Centre for Memory and MobilityLuxembourg City, Luxembourg.
Basel University Center for Medicine of Aging, Felix Platter Hospital and University of BaselBasel, Switzerland.
Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Neuromechanical Research Centre, University of ReginaRegina, SK, Canada.
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of ManitobaWinnipeg, MB, Canada.
Division of Geriatrics, Angers University HospitalAngers, France.
Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de MontréalMontreal, QC, Canada.
Department of Medicine and Montreal Heart Institute, University of MontrealMontreal, Canada.
Aging, Mobility and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, University of British ColumbiaVancouver, BC, Canada.
Andrew and Marjorie McCain Human Performance Laboratory, Richard J. Currie Center, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of New BrunswickFredericton, NB, Canada.
Menzies Institute of Medical Research, University of TasmaniaHobart, TAS, Australia.
Stroke and Ageing Research Group, Department of Medicine, Southern Clinical School, Monash UniversityMelbourne, VIC, Australia.
Research Center on Aging, CIUSSS de l'Estrie-CHUSSherbrooke, QC, Canada.
Department of Geriatrics and Department of Primary and Interdisciplinary Care (ELIZA), University of Antwerp and AZ St. Maarten MechelenAntwerp, Belgium.
Department of Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences at Narita, International University of Health and WelfareNarita, Japan.
Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science, University of Melbourne and Western HealthSt. Albans, VIC, Australia.
Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of AlbertaEdmonton, AB, Canada.
Department of Neuro-Medicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheim, Norway.
Clinic for Clinical Services, St. Olav University HospitalTrondheim, Norway.


Background: Gait disorders, a highly prevalent condition in older adults, are associated with several adverse health consequences. Gait analysis allows qualitative and quantitative assessments of gait that improves the understanding of mechanisms of gait disorders and the choice of interventions. This manuscript aims (1) to give consensus guidance for clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls in older adults aged 65 years and over, and (2) to provide reference values for spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls in healthy older adults free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities. Methods: International experts working in a network of two different consortiums (i.e., Biomathics and Canadian Gait Consortium) participated in this initiative. First, they identified items of standardized information following the usual procedure of formulation of consensus findings. Second, they merged databases including spatiotemporal gait assessments with GAITRite® system and clinical information from the "Gait, cOgnitiOn & Decline" (GOOD) initiative and the Generation 100 (Gen 100) study. Only healthy-free of cognitive impairment and multi-morbidities (i.e., ≤ 3 therapeutics taken daily)-participants aged 65 and older were selected. Age, sex, body mass index, mean values, and coefficients of variation (CoV) of gait parameters were used for the analyses. Results: Standardized systematic assessment of three categories of items, which were demographics and clinical information, and gait characteristics (clinical and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls), were selected for the proposed guidelines. Two complementary sets of items were distinguished: a minimal data set and a full data set. In addition, a total of 954 participants (mean age 72.8 ± 4.8 years, 45.8% women) were recruited to establish the reference values. Performance of spatiotemporal gait parameters based on the recorded footfalls declined with increasing age (mean values and CoV) and demonstrated sex differences (mean values). Conclusions: Based on an international multicenter collaboration, we propose consensus guidelines for gait assessment and spatiotemporal gait analysis based on the recorded footfalls, and reference values for healthy older adults.


aged; gait; guidelines; reference values

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Frontiers Media SA Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center