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Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 Sep - Oct;84(5):599-607. doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2017.07.004. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Association of Ugrp2 gene polymorphisms with adenoid hypertrophy in the pediatric population.

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Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Otolaryngology Clinic, Ankara, Turkey.
Adana Science and Technology University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Department of Bioengineering, Adana, Turkey. Electronic address:
Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Ankara, Turkey.
Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Otolaryngology Clinic, Ankara, Turkey.
Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Yenimahalle Education and Research Hospital, Pediatric Clinic, Ankara, Turkey.



Adenoid hypertrophy is a condition that presents itself as the chronic enlargement of adenoid tissues; it is frequently observed in the pediatric population. The Ugrp2 gene, a member of the secretoglobin superfamily, encodes a low-molecular weight protein that functions in the differentiation of upper airway epithelial cells. However, little is known about the association of Ugrp2 genetic variations with adenoid hypertrophy.


The aim of this study is to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Ugrp2 gene with adenoid hypertrophy and its related phenotypes.


A total of 219 children, comprising 114 patients suffering from adenoid hypertrophy and 105 healthy patients without adenoid hypertrophy, were enrolled in this study. Genotypes of the Ugrp2 gene were determined by DNA sequencing.


We identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (IVS1-189G>A, IVS1-89T>G, c.201delC, and IVS2-15G>A) in the Ugrp2 gene. Our genotype analysis showed that the Ugrp2 (IVS1-89T>G) TG and (c.201delC) CdelC genotypes and their minor alleles were associated with a considerable increase in the risk of adenoid hypertrophy compared with the controls (p=0.012, p=0.009, p=0.013, and p=0.037, respectively). Furthermore, Ugrp2 (GTdelCG, GTdelCA) haplotypes were significantly associated with adenoid hypertrophy (four single nucleotide polymorphisms ordered from 5' to 3'; p=0.0001). Polymorfism-Polymorfism interaction analysis indicated a strong interaction between combined genotypes of the Ugrp2 gene contributing to adenoid hypertrophy, as well as an increased chance of its diagnosis (p<0.0001). In addition, diplotypes carrying the mutant Ugrp2 (c.201delC) allele were strongly associated with an increased risk of adenoid hypertrophy with asthma and with allergies (p=0.003 and p=0.0007, respectively).


Some single nucleotide polymorphisms and their combinations in the Ugrp2 gene are associated with an increased risk of developing adenoid hypertrophy. Therefore, we tried to underline the importance of genetic factors associated with adenoid hypertrophy and its related clinical phenotypes.


Adenoid hypertrophy; Alergia; Allergy; Asma; Asthma; Hipertrofia de adenoide; Polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Ugrp2

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