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J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017 Sep;174:355-363. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.08.018. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Blue light induced free radicals from riboflavin in degradation of crystal violet by microbial viability evaluation.

Author information

1
Department of Biotechnology, Ming-Chuan University, Taoyuan 33343, Taiwan.
2
Department of Science Education and Application, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung 40306, Taiwan. Electronic address: hstsuen@mail.ntcu.edu.tw.
3
Department of Science Education and Application, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung 40306, Taiwan. Electronic address: ccchen@mail.ntcu.edu.tw.

Abstract

Crystal violet (CV) is applied in daily use mainly as a commercial dye and antimicrobial agent. Waste water containing CV may affect aquatic ecosystems. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is non-toxic and an essential vitamin required for the functions of the human body. Riboflavin is photosensitive to UV and visible light in terms of generating reactive oxygen species. This study investigated the potential application of blue light on riboflavin, so as to come up with an effective way of degrading CV during its treatment. Photosensitivity of CV leading to degradation in the presence of riboflavin was investigated by light intensity, exposure time, and irradiation dosage. The degradation of CV during riboflavin photolysis treatment was studied by a UV/vis spectrometry and chromatography. The effects of CV degradation on microbial viability are relevant when considering the influences on the ecosystem. This study proved that riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue light degrades CV dye by ROS formation. The riboflavin photolysis-treated CV solution appeared to be transparent during conformational transformations of the CV that was rearranged by free radical species generated from riboflavin photolysis. After riboflavin photolysis, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each CV solution. CFU preservation was 85.2% for the CV dissolved riboflavin solution treated with blue light irradiation at 2.0mW/cm2 for 120min. Degradation of CV by riboflavin photochemical procedures can greatly reduce antimicrobial ability and serve as an environmental friendly waste water treatment method. Our results presented here concerning riboflavin photolysis in degradation of CV provide a novel technique, and a simple and safe practice for environmental decontamination processes.

KEYWORDS:

Blue light; Crystal violet; Free radical; Riboflavin

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