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Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 18;7(1):8718. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07152-5.

Emergence of recombinant Mayaro virus strains from the Amazon basin.

Author information

1
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
2
Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
3
Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-Mediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
4
Unit of Clinical Pathology and Microbiology, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy.
5
Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
6
Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
7
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
8
One Health Center of Excellence, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. icapua@ufl.edu.
9
Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. salemi@pathology.ufl.edu.
10
Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. salemi@pathology.ufl.edu.

Abstract

Mayaro virus (MAYV), causative agent of Mayaro Fever, is an arbovirus transmitted by Haemagogus mosquitoes. Despite recent attention due to the identification of several cases in South and Central America and the Caribbean, limited information on MAYV evolution and epidemiology exists and represents a barrier to prevention of further spread. We present a thorough spatiotemporal evolutionary study of MAYV full-genome sequences collected over the last sixty years within South America and Haiti, revealing recent recombination events and adaptation to a broad host and vector range, including Aedes mosquito species. We employed a Bayesian phylogeography approach to characterize the emergence of recombinants in Brazil and Haiti and report evidence in favor of the putative role of human mobility in facilitating recombination among MAYV strains from geographically distinct regions. Spatiotemporal characteristics of recombination events and the emergence of this previously neglected virus in Haiti, a known hub for pathogen spread to the Americas, warrants close monitoring of MAYV infection in the immediate future.

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