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Brain Sci. 2017 Aug 18;7(8). pii: E106. doi: 10.3390/brainsci7080106.

A Review of the Neuropsychological Dimensions of Tourette Syndrome.

Author information

1
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal, 7331 rue Hochelaga, Montréal, QC H1N 3V2, Canada. simon.morand-beaulieu@umontreal.ca.
2
Département de neurosciences, Université de Montréal, 2960 Chemin de la Tour, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada. simon.morand-beaulieu@umontreal.ca.
3
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal, 7331 rue Hochelaga, Montréal, QC H1N 3V2, Canada. leclerc.julie@uqam.ca.
4
Département de psychologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, 100, rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Montréal, QC H2X 3P2, Canada. leclerc.julie@uqam.ca.
5
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal, 7331 rue Hochelaga, Montréal, QC H1N 3V2, Canada. valois.philippe@uqam.ca.
6
Département de psychologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, 100, rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Montréal, QC H2X 3P2, Canada. valois.philippe@uqam.ca.
7
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal, 7331 rue Hochelaga, Montréal, QC H1N 3V2, Canada. marc.lavoie@umontreal.ca.
8
Département de neurosciences, Université de Montréal, 2960 Chemin de la Tour, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada. marc.lavoie@umontreal.ca.
9
Département de psychiatrie, Université de Montréal, 2900, boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada. marc.lavoie@umontreal.ca.
10
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal, 7331 rue Hochelaga, Montréal, QC H1N 3V2, Canada. kieron.oconnor@umontreal.ca.
11
Département de psychologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, 100, rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Montréal, QC H2X 3P2, Canada. kieron.oconnor@umontreal.ca.
12
Département de psychiatrie, Université de Montréal, 2900, boulevard Édouard-Montpetit, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada. kieron.oconnor@umontreal.ca.
13
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal, 7331 rue Hochelaga, Montréal, QC H1N 3V2, Canada. bruno.gauthier@umontreal.ca.
14
Département de psychologie, Université de Montréal, Campus Laval, 1700 rue Jacques-Tétreault, Laval, QC H7N 0B6, Canada. bruno.gauthier@umontreal.ca.

Abstract

Neurocognitive functioning in Tourette syndrome (TS) has been the subject of intensive research in the past 30 years. A variety of impairments, presumably related to frontal and frontostriatal dysfunctions, have been observed. These impairments were found in various domains, such as attention, memory, executive functions, language, motor and visuomotor functions, among others. In line with contemporary research, other neurocognitive domains have recently been explored in TS, bringing evidence of altered social reasoning, for instance. Therefore, the aims of this review are to give an overview of the neuropsychological dimensions of TS, to report how neuropsychological functions evolve from childhood to adulthood, and to explain how various confounding factors can affect TS patients' performance in neuropsychological tasks. Finally, an important contribution of this review is to show how recent research has confirmed or changed our beliefs about neuropsychological functioning in TS.

KEYWORDS:

Tourette syndrome; academic performance; attention; executive function; language; memory; motor skills; neuropsychology; social cognition; tics

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