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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Mar;240(3):737-46.

CPP, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type receptor antagonist: characterization in vitro and in vivo.


3-(2-Carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) was synthesized as a rigid analog of 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate, a previously known antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) preferring, or NMDA-type, of excitatory amino acid receptor. CPP was found to be a potent, selective and competitive antagonist of NMDA-type receptors. CPP antagonized with an IC50 of 8 muM [3H]ACh release which was evoked from rat striatal brain slices by NMDA (50 muM). In contrast, the release of [3H]ACh evoked by elevated KCI was not inhibited by CPP even at a concentration of 100 muM. The antagonism by CPP of NMDA-evoked [3H]ACh release was competitive, with a pA2 of 5.66 for CPP, compared with a pA2 value of 5.22 for 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate. CPP affected neither the uptake of L-[3H]glutamate nor the inhibition by aconitine of L-[3H]glutamate uptake, suggesting a lack of membrane-stabilizing or local anesthetic effects, and also suggesting that CPP itself may not be taken up through the L-glutamate membrane transporter. Moreover, [3H] CPP was not accumulated by synaptosomes (P2 fraction) which avidly accumulate L-[3H]glutamate, supporting the concept that this NMDA-type receptor antagonist acts at an NMDA-type receptor on the external surface of the plasma membrane. CPP (10 muM) failed to interact with any of 21 other putative neurotransmitter receptors including alpha-[3H]amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid binding (quisqualate-type receptor) and [3H]kainate binding (kainate-type receptor). Audiogenic convulsions in DBA/2 mice were blocked by CPP (ED50 = 1.5 mg/kg i.p.) as were NMDA-induced seizures in CF-1 mice (ED50 = 1.9 mg/kg i.p.). In both strains, CPP impaired the traction reflex at higher doses (ED50 = 6.8 mg/kg and 6.1 mg/kg and 6.1 mg/kg i.p. for DBA/2 and CF-1, respectively). The traction reflex impairment by CPP may be due to muscle relaxant effects of the compound, an explanation supported by the finding that CPP reduced muscle tone as assessed by electromyogram measurement in animals whose muscle tone had been increased by opiate administration. Finally, cerebellar cyclic GMP levels, known to be sensitive to neurotransmission via NMDA-type receptors, were decreased by CPP (ED50 = 4.7 mg/kg i.p.) in mice. In conclusion, based upon the competitive antagonism by CPP of NMDA-evoked [3H] ACh release in vitro and the antagonism of NMDA-induced convulsions in vivo, the data presented are consistent with competitive antagonism of NMDA-type receptors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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