Send to

Choose Destination
J Nucl Med. 2018 Mar;59(3):410-417. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.117.195610. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Immune Modulation Therapy and Imaging: Workshop Report.

Author information

Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
University of Groningen Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey; and.
Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.


A workshop at the National Cancer Institute on May 2, 2016, considered the current state of imaging in assessment of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy has shown some remarkable and prolonged responses in the treatment of tumors. However, responses are variable and frequently delayed, complicating the evaluation of new immunotherapy agents and customizing treatment for individual patients. Early anatomic imaging may show that a tumor has increased in size, but this could represent pseudoprogression. On the basis of imaging, clinicians must decide if they should stop, pause, or continue treatment. Other imaging technologies and approaches are being developed to improve the measurement of response in patients receiving immunotherapy. Imaging methods that are being evaluated include radiomic methods using CT, MRI, and 18F-FDG PET, as well as new radiolabeled small molecules, antibodies, and antibody fragments to image the tumor microenvironment, immune status, and changes over the course of therapy. Current studies of immunotherapy can take advantage of these available imaging options to explore and validate their use. Collection of CT, PET, and MR images along with outcomes from trials is critical to develop improved methods of assessment.


biomarkers; imaging cancer; immunotherapy

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center