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Br J Nutr. 2017 Aug;118(4):280-290. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001714. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Breakfast consumption and nutrient intakes in 4-18-year-olds: UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008-2012).

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1Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division,King's College London, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine,Franklin-Wilkins Building,150 Stamford Street,London SE1 9NH,UK.
2Department of Medical Statistics,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health,Keppel St,London WC1E 7HT,UK.


Although breakfast consumption is widely considered to be an important component of a healthy lifestyle, few UK studies have examined differences in nutrient intakes between breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers among children and adolescents. We investigated associations between breakfast skipping in 4-18-year-olds and their nutrient intakes using data from the UK's National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Dietary data were derived from 4-d estimated food diaries of 802 children aged 4-10 years and 884 children aged 11-18 years (1686 in total). Daily nutrient intakes of children with different breakfast habits were compared by one-way ANCOVA adjusting for relevant covariates (sex, age, ethnicity, equivalised household income and BMI). Within-person analysis was carried out on children with an irregular breakfast habit (n 879) comparing nutrient intakes on breakfast days with those on non-breakfast days using repeated measures ANCOVA. We observed that the overall nutritional profile of the children in terms of fibre and micronutrient intake was superior in frequent breakfast consumers (micronutrients: folate, Ca, Fe and I (P<0·01)) and, for the 4-10 years age group, on breakfast days (micronutrients: folate, vitamin C, Ca and I (P<0·01)). Also, significantly higher proportions of breakfast-consuming children met their reference nutrient intakes of folate, vitamin C, Ca, Fe and I compared with breakfast skippers (χ 2 analysis, P<0·001). Our study adds to the body of data linking breakfast consumption with higher quality dietary intake in school-age children, supporting the promotion of breakfast as an important element of a healthy dietary pattern in children.


EAR estimated average requirement; LRNI lower reference nutrient intake; NDNS RP National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme; NMES non-milk extrinsic sugars; Breakfast; Children; Dietary patterns; National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme; Nutrient intakes

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