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Nat Ecol Evol. 2017 Feb 6;1(3):59. doi: 10.1038/s41559-016-0059.

Genome of the pitcher plant Cephalotus reveals genetic changes associated with carnivory.

Author information

1
National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan.
2
Department of Basic Biology, School of Life Science, SOKENDAI (Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Okazaki 444-8585, Japan.
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.
4
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.
5
Department of Computer Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China.
6
Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.
7
Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, Ghent University, Ghent 9052, Belgium.
8
Department of Biological Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260, USA.
9
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.
10
School of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Miyagi University, Miyagi 982-0215, Japan.
11
Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture, Tokai University, Kumamoto 869-1404, Japan.
12
Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568, Japan.
13
Departament de Genètica and Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 643, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
14
Center for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350K Copenhagen, Denmark.
15
Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.
16
Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-0934, Japan.
17
Department of Biological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397, Japan.
18
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Ottawa, K1N 6N5 Ottawa, Canada.
19
Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8573, Japan.
20
Department of Natural Science, Osaka Kyoiku University, Osaka 582-8582, Japan.

Abstract

Carnivorous plants exploit animals as a nutritional source and have inspired long-standing questions about the origin and evolution of carnivory-related traits. To investigate the molecular bases of carnivory, we sequenced the genome of the heterophyllous pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis, in which we succeeded in regulating the developmental switch between carnivorous and non-carnivorous leaves. Transcriptome comparison of the two leaf types and gene repertoire analysis identified genetic changes associated with prey attraction, capture, digestion and nutrient absorption. Analysis of digestive fluid proteins from C. follicularis and three other carnivorous plants with independent carnivorous origins revealed repeated co-options of stress-responsive protein lineages coupled with convergent amino acid substitutions to acquire digestive physiology. These results imply constraints on the available routes to evolve plant carnivory.

PMID:
28812732
DOI:
10.1038/s41559-016-0059

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