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Nat Ecol Evol. 2017 Mar 23;1(4):101. doi: 10.1038/s41559-017-0101.

The multilayer nature of ecological networks.

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Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, 1101 E 57 Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
Department of Mathematics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.
Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK.
CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP, UK.
Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA.
Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution, BioDICée team, UMR 5554, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, EPHE, CC 065, Place Eugéne Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France.


Although networks provide a powerful approach to study a large variety of ecological systems, their formulation does not typically account for multiple interaction types, interactions that vary in space and time, and interconnected systems such as networks of networks. The emergent field of 'multilayer networks' provides a natural framework for extending analyses of ecological systems to include such multiple layers of complexity, as it specifically allows one to differentiate and model 'intralayer' and 'interlayer' connectivity. The framework provides a set of concepts and tools that can be adapted and applied to ecology, facilitating research on high-dimensional, heterogeneous systems in nature. Here, we formally define ecological multilayer networks based on a review of previous, related approaches; illustrate their application and potential with analyses of existing data; and discuss limitations, challenges, and future applications. The integration of multilayer network theory into ecology offers largely untapped potential to investigate ecological complexity and provide new theoretical and empirical insights into the architecture and dynamics of ecological systems.


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