Send to

Choose Destination
World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Jul 28;23(28):5068-5085. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i28.5068.

Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine peptides/amines in inflammatory bowel disease.

Author information

Magdy El-Salhy, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Stord Hospital, Box 4000, 5409 Stord, Norway.


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD. Moreover, the interaction between GI NEPA and intestinal microbiota appears to play also a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of IBD. This review summarizes the available data on GI NEPA in IBD, and speculates on their possible role in the pathophysiology and the potential use of this information when developing treatments. GI NEPA serotonin, the neuropeptide Y family, and substance P are proinflammatory, while the chromogranin/secretogranin family, vasoactive intestinal peptide, somatostatin, and ghrelin are anti-inflammatory. Several innate and adaptive immune cells express these NEPA and/or have receptors to them. The GI NEPA are affected in patients with IBD and in animal models of human IBD. The GI NEPA are potentially useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of the activity of IBD, and are candidate targets for treatments of this disease.


Enteric nervous system; Enteroendocrine cells; Immune cells; Inflammatory bowel disease; Musashi-1; Neurogenin 3; Stem cells

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center