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Environ Pollut. 2017 Dec;231(Pt 1):357-366. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.102. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Chemical composition, source, and process of urban aerosols during winter haze formation in Northeast China.

Author information

1
Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 320007, China.
2
Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China.
3
Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China.
4
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
5
Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502, Japan.
6
Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.
7
Institute of Atmospheric Environment, China Meteorological Administration, Shenyang 110016, China.
8
College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Heilongjiang University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150022, China.
9
Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China.
10
Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.
11
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.
12
Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 320007, China. Electronic address: liweijun@zju.edu.cn.

Abstract

The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH4+, SO42-, and NO3- concentrations in PM2.5 were 89.5 μg/m3, 24.2 μg/m3, 28.1 μg/m3, and 32.8 μg/m3 on the haze days, respectively. TEM observations further showed that over 80% of the haze particles contained primary organic aerosols (POAs). Based on a comparison of the data obtained during the haze formation, we generate the following synthetic model of the process: (1) Stable synoptic meteorological conditions drove the haze formation. (2) The early stage of haze formation (light or moderate haze) was mainly caused by the enrichment of POAs from coal burning for household heating and cooking. (3) High levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), sulfates, and nitrates formation via heterogeneous reactions together with POAs accumulation promoted to the evolution from light or moderate to severe haze. Compared to the severe haze episodes over the North China Plain, the PM2.5 in Northeast China analyzed in the present study contained similar sulfate, higher SOA, and lower nitrate contents. Our results suggest that most of the POAs and secondary particles were likely related to emissions from coal-burning residential stoves in rural outskirts and small boilers in urban areas. The inefficient burning of coal for household heating and cooking should be monitored during wintertime in Northeast China.

PMID:
28810205
DOI:
10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.102
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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