Send to

Choose Destination
JAMA. 2017 Aug 15;318(7):637-646. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.10169.

Effect of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Author information

Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Centre for Physical Activity Research, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
CopenRehab, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Musculoskeletal Statistics Unit, Parker Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.
Translational Research and Early Clinical Development, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
Danish Diabetes Academy, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.



It is unclear whether a lifestyle intervention can maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.


To test whether an intensive lifestyle intervention results in equivalent glycemic control compared with standard care and, secondarily, leads to a reduction in glucose-lowering medication in participants with type 2 diabetes.

Design, Setting, and Participants:

Randomized, assessor-blinded, single-center study within Region Zealand and the Capital Region of Denmark (April 2015-August 2016). Ninety-eight adult participants with non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes who were diagnosed for less than 10 years were included. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1; stratified by sex) to the lifestyle group (n = 64) or the standard care group (n = 34).


All participants received standard care with individual counseling and standardized, blinded, target-driven medical therapy. Additionally, the lifestyle intervention included 5 to 6 weekly aerobic training sessions (duration 30-60 minutes), of which 2 to 3 sessions were combined with resistance training. The lifestyle participants received dietary plans aiming for a body mass index of 25 or less. Participants were followed up for 12 months.

Main Outcomes and Measures:

Primary outcome was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to 12-month follow-up, and equivalence was prespecified by a CI margin of ±0.4% based on the intention-to-treat population. Superiority analysis was performed on the secondary outcome reductions in glucose-lowering medication.


Among 98 randomized participants (mean age, 54.6 years [SD, 8.9]; women, 47 [48%]; mean baseline HbA1c, 6.7%), 93 participants completed the trial. From baseline to 12-month follow-up, the mean HbA1c level changed from 6.65% to 6.34% in the lifestyle group and from 6.74% to 6.66% in the standard care group (mean between-group difference in change of -0.26% [95% CI, -0.52% to -0.01%]), not meeting the criteria for equivalence (P = .15). Reduction in glucose-lowering medications occurred in 47 participants (73.5%) in the lifestyle group and 9 participants (26.4%) in the standard care group (difference, 47.1 percentage points [95% CI, 28.6-65.3]). There were 32 adverse events (most commonly musculoskeletal pain or discomfort and mild hypoglycemia) in the lifestyle group and 5 in the standard care group.

Conclusions and Relevance:

Among adults with type 2 diabetes diagnosed for less than 10 years, a lifestyle intervention compared with standard care resulted in a change in glycemic control that did not reach the criterion for equivalence, but was in a direction consistent with benefit. Further research is needed to assess superiority, as well as generalizability and durability of findings.

Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT02417012.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center