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J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2017 Aug 14;14(1):82. doi: 10.1186/s12984-017-0290-6.

NLR, MLP, SVM, and LDA: a comparative analysis on EMG data from people with trans-radial amputation.

Author information

1
Research Unit of Biomedical Robotics and Biomicrosystems, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, v. Alvaro Del Portillo, Rome, Italy. a.dellacasa@unicampus.it.
2
Centro Protesi INAIL di Vigorso di Budrio, v. Rabuina, Bologna, Italy. a.dellacasa@unicampus.it.
3
Research Unit of Biomedical Robotics and Biomicrosystems, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, v. Alvaro Del Portillo, Rome, Italy.
4
Centro Protesi INAIL di Vigorso di Budrio, v. Rabuina, Bologna, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Currently, the typically adopted hand prosthesis surface electromyography (sEMG) control strategies do not provide the users with a natural control feeling and do not exploit all the potential of commercially available multi-fingered hand prostheses. Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques applied to sEMG can be effective for a natural control based on the residual muscles contraction of amputated people corresponding to phantom limb movements. As the researches has reached an advanced grade accuracy, these algorithms have been proved and the embedding is necessary for the realization of prosthetic devices. The aim of this work is to provide engineering tools and indications on how to choose the most suitable classifier, and its specific internal settings for an embedded control of multigrip hand prostheses.

METHODS:

By means of an innovative statistical analysis, we compare 4 different classifiers: Nonlinear Logistic Regression, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Support Vector Machine and Linear Discriminant Analysis, which was considered as ground truth. Experimental tests have been performed on sEMG data collected from 30 people with trans-radial amputation, in which the algorithms were evaluated for both performance and computational burden, then the statistical analysis has been based on the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test and statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05.

RESULTS:

The comparative analysis among NLR, MLP and SVM shows that, for either classification performance and for the number of classification parameters, SVM attains the highest values followed by MLP, and then by NLR. However, using as unique constraint to evaluate the maximum acceptable complexity of each classifier one of the typically available memory of a high performance microcontroller, the comparison pointed out that for people with trans-radial amputation the algorithm that produces the best compromise is NLR closely followed by MLP. This result was also confirmed by the comparison with LDA with time domain features, which provided not significant differences of performance and computational burden between NLR and LDA.

CONCLUSIONS:

The proposed analysis would provide innovative engineering tools and indications on how to choose the most suitable classifier based on the application and the desired results for prostheses control.

KEYWORDS:

Embedded; Linear discriminant analysis; Multi-layer perceptron; Nonlinear logistic regression; Pattern recognition; Prostheses; Statistical comparison; Support vector machine; Surface electromyography

PMID:
28807038
PMCID:
PMC5557564
DOI:
10.1186/s12984-017-0290-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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