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Int Rev Neurobiol. 2017;134:877-890. doi: 10.1016/bs.irn.2017.05.034. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Osteoporosis: A Hidden Nonmotor Face of Parkinson's Disease.

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Imperial College Hospitals NHS, London, United Kingdom; University College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona, Spain.
John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.


Osteoporosis is a "hidden nonmotor face" of Parkinson's disease and a cause of considerable morbidity in the older general population and in Parkinson's disease patients. Some regard this as a "hidden epidemic." Women are overrepresented and have considerable problems related to osteoporosis. In general osteoporosis leads to reduced mobility aggravating the motor syndrome of PD. The nonmotor aspects and impact of osteoporosis in PD have remained unexplored. Possible nonmotor consequences include a range of pain syndromes related to local pain, fractures, falls, and injuries as well as pathological fractures and radiculopathy. In addition depression, sleep dysfunction, dementia, as well as fear of falling also complicate the clinical picture. Quality of life deteriorates both for the patient and career. Pathways of care do not always include assessments for osteoporosis and needs to become obligatory particularly in older female PD patients. Active management strategies then need to be undertaken for osteoporosis in PD. Related motor and nonmotor consequences also highlight the importance of multidisciplinary treatment in PD particularly when dealing with osteoporosis.


Bone mineral density; Nonmotor symptoms; Osteopenia; Osteoporosis; Parkinson's disease

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