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Int Rev Neurobiol. 2017;134:1143-1161. doi: 10.1016/bs.irn.2017.04.013. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Nutrition and Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

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Bastyr University Research Institute, Kenmore, WA, United States. Electronic address:


To date, no guidelines exist for the screening, evaluation, and management of nutritional status in PD. Dozens of studies demonstrate an association between diet in adulthood with subsequent risk of developing PD. Individuals with PD are at increased risk of malnutrition due to the increased metabolic demands and disease pathophysiology. Risk of malnutrition is further complicated by anosmia, swallowing difficulties, constipation, and drug-nutrient interactions. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the intestinal tract is affected early in the disease, creating therapeutic opportunities for early intervention. Dietary modification and nutritional supplementation may improve symptoms of constipation, depression, insomnia, dystonia, and help prevent cognitive dysfunction. This review summarizes the state of the science related to nutrition and nonmotor symptoms of PD.


Deficiency; Malnutrition; Mineral; Nutritional; Vitamin

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