Send to

Choose Destination
ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2016 Jun 13;2(6):1049-1058. doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00164. Epub 2016 May 24.

Assembly of Layered Monetite-Chitosan Nanocomposite and Its Transition to Organized Hydroxyapatite.

Author information

Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, Los Angeles, California 90033, United States.
Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 3651 Watt Way, Los Angeles, California 90089, United States.


Bioinspired synthesis of hierarchically structured calcium phosphate (CaP) material is a highly promising strategy for developing improved bone substitute materials. However, synthesis of CaP materials with outstanding mechanical properties still remains an ongoing challenge. Inspired by the formation of lamellar structure in nacre, we designed an organic matrix composed of chitosan and cis-butenediolic acid (maleic acid, MAc) that could assemble into a layered complex and further guide the mineralization of monetite crystals, resulting in the formation of organized and parallel arrays of monetite platelets with a brick-and-mortar structure. Using the layered monetite-chitosan composite as a precursor, we were able to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HAp) with multiscale hierarchically ordered structure via a topotactic phase transformation process. On the nanoscale, needlelike HAp crystallites assembled into organized bundles that aligned to form highly oriented plates on the microscale. On the large-scale level, these plates with different crystal orientations were stacked together to form a layered structure. The organized structures and composite feature yielded CaP materials with improved mechanical properties close to those of bone. Our study introduces a biomimetic approach that may be practical for the design of advanced, mechanically robust materials for biomedical applications.


bioinspired matrix; chitosan; hierarchical structure; hydroxyapatite; maleic acid; monetite

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center