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Neuroepidemiology. 2017;49(1-2):1-17. doi: 10.1159/000478702. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Non-Motor Symptoms Assessed by Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale in Parkinson's Disease in Selected Asian Populations.

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Neurology, King's College Hospital, London, UK.



Ethnic variations have been described in medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Whether ethnicity plays a role in Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly with regard to non-motor symptoms (NMS), remains unclear. Existing literature is diverse, controversial, and inadequately documented. This review aims to analyse and report the currently available literature on NMS, specifically in Asian PD patients.


We conducted a literature review using PubMed, searching for articles and currently available publications that reference and assess NMS in PD patients living in Asia using the validated NMS Questionnaire (NMS Quest) and NMS Scale (NMSS). In total, 24 articles were included: 12 using the NMS Quest and 12 using the NMSS. Symptoms of constipation, memory impairment, and nocturia were the most frequently self-reported symptoms (NMS Quest) in selected Asian populations, while symptoms within the domains sleep/fatigue, attention/memory, and mood/apathy were most prevalent when applying the health-professional completed NMSS. Key Messages: NMS are generally prevalent and highly burdensome within selected Asian PD populations living in countries included in this review. Our review suggests that NMS-driven phenotypic heterogeneity is present in Asian patients, and compared to Western PD populations there might be variations in assessed NMS.


Asia; Ethnicity; Non-motor symptoms; Parkinson

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