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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 Nov;50(5):617-621. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2017.08.010. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Antifungal resistance in mucorales.

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Paris-Descartes University, Faculty of Medicine, APHP, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Parasitology-Mycology Unit, Microbiology Department, Paris, France. Electronic address:


The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterised by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardised antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials. Amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole are currently the most active agents against Mucorales; however, their activity remains suboptimal and new therapeutic strategies are needed. Combination therapy could be a promising approach to overcome resistance, but further studies are required to confirm its benefits and safety for patients.


Animal models; Antifungals; Combination; Mucorales; Resistance; Susceptibility testing

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