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Am J Kidney Dis. 2017 Dec;70(6):762-769. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.06.013. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Impact of Hyperuricemia on Long-term Outcomes of Kidney Transplantation: Analysis of the FAVORIT Study.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. Electronic address: roberto-kalil@uiowa.edu.
2
Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
3
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA.
4
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD.
5
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
6
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI.
7
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.
8
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Elevated uric acid concentration is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in the general population. It is not known whether hyperuricemia increases the risk for CV death or transplant failure in kidney transplant recipients.

STUDY DESIGN:

Post hoc cohort analysis of the FAVORIT Study, a randomized controlled trial that examined the effect of homocysteine-lowering vitamins on CV disease in kidney transplantation.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

Adult recipients of kidney transplants in the United States, Canada, or Brazil participating in the FAVORIT Study, with hyperhomocysteinemia, stable kidney function, and no known history of CV disease.

PREDICTOR:

Uric acid concentration.

OUTCOMES:

The primary end point was a composite of CV events. Secondary end points were all-cause mortality and transplant failure. Risk factors included in statistical models were age, sex, race, country, treatment assignment, smoking history, body mass index, presence of diabetes mellitus, history of CV disease, blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), donor type, transplant vintage, lipid concentrations, albumin-creatinine ratio, and uric acid concentration. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to examine the association of uric acid concentration with study end points after risk adjustment.

RESULTS:

3,512 of 4,110 FAVORIT participants with baseline uric acid concentrations were studied. Median follow-up was 3.9 (IQR, 3.0-5.3) years. 503 patients had a primary CV event, 401 died, and 287 had transplant failure. In unadjusted analyses, uric acid concentration was significantly related to each outcome. Uric acid concentration was also strongly associated with eGFR. The relationship between uric acid concentration and study end points was no longer significant in fully adjusted multivariable models (P=0.5 for CV events; P=0.09 for death, and P=0.1 for transplant failure).

LIMITATIONS:

Unknown use of uric acid-lowering agents among study participants.

CONCLUSIONS:

Following kidney transplantation, uric acid concentrations are not independently associated with CV events, mortality, or transplant failure. The strong association between uric acid concentrations with traditional risk factors and eGFR is a possible explanation.

KEYWORDS:

Kidney transplant; cardiovascular disease (CVD); cardiovascular events; end-stage renal disease (ESRD); graft loss; hyperuricemia; mortality; outcomes; transplant failure; uric acid

PMID:
28801121
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.06.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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