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Neurol Sci. 2017 Nov;38(11):1941-1951. doi: 10.1007/s10072-017-3080-9. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Multiple sclerosis and environmental risk factors: a case-control study in Iran.

Author information

1
Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
2
Medical Students Research Committee, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
3
Neurology group, Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. massoodnabavi@yahoo.com.
4
MS research unit, Mostafa Khomeini Hospital, School of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. massoodnabavi@yahoo.com.
5
Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
6
Neurology Department, Isfahan university of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
7
Neurology Department, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
8
Neurology Department, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
9
Neurology Department, Azad Medical University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
10
Neurology Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
11
Neurology Department, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
12
Neurology Department, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Abstract

Studies have shown an increase in the incidence of MS in Iran. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental exposure and MS in Iran. This case-control study was conducted on 660 MS patients and 421 controls. Many environmental factors are compared between the two groups. Our findings demonstrated that prematurity ([OR = 4.99 (95% CI 1.34-18.68), P = 0.017]), history of measles and mumps ([OR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.05-2.45), P = 0.029; OR = 1.85 (95% CI 1.22-2.78), P = 0.003, respectively]), breast feeding [OR = 2.90 (95% CI 1.49-5.65), P = 0.002], head trauma in childhood ([OR = 8.21 (95% CI 1.56-43.06), P = 0.013]), vaccination in adulthood ([OR = 4.57 (95% CI 1.14-18.41), P = 0.032, respectively]), migraine ([OR = 3.50 (95% CI 1.61-7.59), P = 0.002]), family history of MS, IBD, migraine, and collagen vascular diseases ([OR = 2.73 (95% CI 1.56-4.78), P < 0.001], [OR = 3.14 (95% CI 1.460-6.78), P = 0.004; OR = 3.18 (95% CI 1.83-5.53), P < 0.001; OR = 1.81 (95% CI 1.03-3.20), P = 0.040, respectively]), stressful events ([OR = 32.57 (95% CI 17.21-61.64), P < 0.001]), and microwave exposure ([OR = 3.55 (95% CI 2.24-5.63), P ≤0.001]) were more in the MS group. Sun exposure ([OR = 0.09 (95% CI 0.02-0.38), P = 0.001]), dairy and calcium consumption ([OR = 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.71), P = 0.001]), diabetes mellitus ([OR = 0.11 (95% CI 0.01-00.99), P = 0.049], and complete vaccination during childhood appeared to decreased MS risk. Our results investigated many risk factors and protective factors in Iran.

KEYWORDS:

Epidemiology; Iran; Multiple sclerosis; Protective factors; Risk factors

PMID:
28799006
DOI:
10.1007/s10072-017-3080-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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