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Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Jul 26;11:383. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00383. eCollection 2017.

Learning Morse Code Alters Microstructural Properties in the Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus: A DTI Study.

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Department of Neurology, BG-Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr Universität BochumBochum, Germany.
Department of Radiology, University Medical Center UtrechtUtrecht, Netherlands.
Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center UtrechtUtrecht, Netherlands.
Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr Universität BochumBochum, Germany.
Department of Neurology, St. Mauritius TherapieklinikMeerbusch, Germany.
Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, University of DüsseldorfDüsseldorf, Germany.


Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM). However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role of white matter plasticity for language acquisition. By acoustically presenting Morse Code (MC) using an in house developed audio book as a model for language-type learning, we generated a well-controlled learning environment that allows for the detection of subtle white matter changes related to language type learning in a much shorter time frame than usual language acquisition. In total 12 letters of the MC alphabet were learned within six learning session, which allowed study participants to perform a word recognition MC decoding task. In this study, we found that learning MC was associated with significant microstructural changes in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The fractional anisotropy (FA) of this associative fiber bundle connecting the occipital and posterior temporal cortex with the temporal pole as well as the hippocampus and amygdala was increased. Furthermore, white matter plasticity was associated with task performance of MC decoding, indicating that the structural changes were related to learning efficiency. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate an important role of white matter neuroplasticity for acquiring a new language skill.


DTI; Morse code; inferior longitudinal fasciculus; language learning; semantic learning

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