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PLoS One. 2017 Aug 10;12(8):e0182571. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182571. eCollection 2017.

Comparison of cytokine profiles in the aqueous humor of eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma.

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Swiss Eye Institute and Berner Augenklinik am Lindenhofspital, Bern, Switzerland.
University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.



To compare the cyto- and chemokine profiles in the aqueous humor of PEXS eyes in the absence or presence of secondary glaucoma with or without luxation of the intraocular lens (IOL).


Samples of aqueous humor were collected intraoperatively from 20 healthy controls and from 73 eyes with PEX-syndrome, which was manifested in the absence of any other local or systemic desease. The latter group was sub-devided into eyes with an early form of PEX-syndrome in the absence of complications (PEX, n = 33), those with a late form of PEX-syndrome and glaucoma (PEXG, n = 30), and those with a late form of PEX-syndrome with luxation of the IOL that required surgery (PEXL, n = 10). The samples were analyzed in parallel after storage at -80°C. The levels of 40 cytokines were simultaneously quantified using the Bio-Plex® multiplex beads system. The inter-group data were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.01).


PEX and PEXG were comparable in their cytokine profiles for all 40 cytokines, whereas the cytokine profile in PEXL-eyes revealed higher levels of all but 5 cytokines (CXCL13, CCL27, IL-2, CCL3, CCL20; p ≤ 0.01). This latter finding is indicative of a non-specific inflammatory reaction in the context of IOL-luxation. The concentrations of 6 cytokines lay below the detection limit in all groups.


The local up-regulation of 85% of the detectable cytokines in the aqueous humor of PEXL-eyes may be linked either with a progression of the disease or a breakdown of the antero-posterior barrier in the context of IOL-luxation.

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