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Eur J Clin Invest. 2017 Oct;47(10):746-755. doi: 10.1111/eci.12800. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Vitamin D predictors in polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis.

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Center for Adolescent Medicine and UNESCO Chair on Adolescent Health Care, First Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.
Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Department, General Hospital of Athens 'Evangelismos', Athens, Greece.
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, First Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 'Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Clinical Research Center, Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.



The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine differences and predictors of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with non-PCOS controls matched for body mass index.


Three databases were searched (2003-2015) to retrieve studies that evaluated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in PCOS women and controls. Meta-regression analysis was performed with anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine parameters as covariates.


Fourteen studies that included 2262 women (1150 PCOS patients/1162 controls) were eligible. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, follicle-stimulating hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significantly lower in patients with PCOS than controls. Homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index, serum insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, luteinising hormone and testosterone were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared to controls. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated significant effects of waist-to-hip ratio and glucose in PCOS women (β = -1·60, 95% CI: -2·30 to -0·90, P = 0·003; β = 0·20, 95% CI: 0·80-0·32, P = 0·004, respectively) and controls (β = -2·36, 95% CI: -3·38 to -1·33, P = 0·003; β = 0·11, 95% CI: 0·00-0·21, P = 0·05, respectively) and of total calcium and luteinising hormone in PCOS cases (β = 2·43, 95% CI: 1·67-3·19, P = 0·005; β = -0·37, 95% CI: -0·68 to -0·06, P = 0·03, respectively).


Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be predicted positively by serum calcium and negatively by luteinising hormone in women with PCOS, and negatively by waist-to-hip ratio and positively by fasting glucose in both PCOS and non-PCOS women, independently of the presence of obesity.


25(OH)D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; metabolic syndrome; polycystic ovary syndrome; vitamin D predictors; waist-to-hip ratio


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