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Materials (Basel). 2015 Aug 21;8(8):5479-5489. doi: 10.3390/ma8085260.

Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan.
Cement and Construction Materials Company, Ube Industries, Ogushi Okinoyama 1-6, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8633, Japan.
The Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Komachi 4-33, Naka-ku, Hiroshima, Hiroshima 730-8701, Japan.


Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.


cement; concrete pavement; early strength; fly ash; limestone; recyclability

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