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Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 Nov;112:336-349. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.08.003. Epub 2017 Aug 5.

Mdivi-1 ameliorates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage via the suppression of inflammation-related blood-brain barrier disruption and endoplasmic reticulum stress-based apoptosis.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, No. 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, China.
2
Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, No. 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address: d-chengao@zju.edu.cn.

Abstract

Aberrant modulation of mitochondrial dynamic network, which shifts the balance of fusion and fission towards fission, is involved in brain damage of various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. A recent research has shown that the inhibition of mitochondrial fission alleviates early brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained to be elucidated. This study was undertaken to characterize the effects of the inhibition of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1, a dominator of mitochondrial fission) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuronal apoptosis following SAH and the potential mechanisms. The endovascular perforation model of SAH was performed in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The results indicated Mdivi-1(a selective Drp1 inhibitor) reversed the morphologic changes of mitochondria and Drp1 translocation, reduced ROS levels, ameliorated the BBB disruption and brain edema remarkably, decreased the expression of MMP-9 and prevented degradation of tight junction proteins-occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1. Mdivi-1 administration also inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), leading to decreased expressions of TNF-ɑ, IL-6 and IL-1ß. Moreover, Mdivi-1 treatment attenuated neuronal cell death and improved neurological outcome. To investigate the underlying mechanisms further, we determined that Mdivi-1 reduced p-PERK, p-eIF2α, CHOP, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax expression as well as increased Bcl-2 expression. Rotenone (a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial complexes I) abolished both the anti-BBB disruption and anti-apoptosis effects of Mdivi-1. In conclusion, these data implied that excessive mitochondrial fission might inhibit mitochondrial complex I to become a cause of oxidative stress in SAH, and the inhibition of Drp1 by Mdivi-1 attenuated early brain injury after SAH probably via the suppression of inflammation-related blood-brain barrier disruption and endoplasmic reticulum stress-based apoptosis.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Blood-brain barrier disruption; Early brain injury; Inflammation; Mdivi-1; Subarachnoid hemorrhage

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