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Dev Reprod. 2017 Jun;21(2):121-130. doi: 10.12717/DR.2017.21.2.121. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Disturbing Effects of Chronic Low-dose 4-Nonylphenol exposing on Gonadal Weight and Reproductive Outcome over One-generation.

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Division of Developmental Biology and Physiology, School of Biological Sciences and Chemistry, Sungshin University, Seoul 02844, Korea.
Department of Lifesicence, Sangmyung University, Soeul 03016, Korea.
School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea.


4-Nonylphenol (NP) is a surfactant that is a well-known and widespread estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). Although it has been known that the affinity of NP to ERs is low, it has been suggested that low-dose NP has toxicity. In the present study, the endocrine disrupting effects on reproduction, and the weight of gonads, epididymis, and uterus were evaluated with the chronic lower-dose NP exposing. This study was designed by following the OECD test guideline 443 and subjected to a complete necropsy. In male, NP had an effect on the weight of the testis and epididymis in both F0 and F1. In females, NP decreased the weight of ovary and uterus in F0 but not in pre-pubertal F1 pubs. Fertility of male and female in F0 or F1 was no related with NP administration. The number of caudal-epididymal sperm by body weight (BW) was not different between groups in both F0 and F1. Besides, the difference of the sperm number between generations was not detected. The number of ovulated oocytes was similar between groups in F0, but significantly decreased in NP 50 group of F1. The litter size and sex ratios of offspring in F1 and F2 were not different. The accumulated mating rate and gestation period were not affected by the NP administration. Those results shows that chronic lower-dose NP administration has an effect of endocrine disruptor on the weight of gonads and epididymis of F0 and F1 but not in reproduction. Based on the results, it is suggested that chronic lower-dose NP exposing causes endocrine disruption in the weight of gonad and epididymis but not in the reproductive ability of next generations.


Chronic low-dose nonylphenol; Endocrine disrupting; Nonylphenol; Reproduction; Sperm count

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