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Pediatrics. 2017 Sep;140(3). pii: e20163000. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3000. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Early Probiotic Supplementation for Eczema and Asthma Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Author information

Departments of Pediatrics,
Epidemiology and Biostatistics.
Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
Departments of Pediatrics.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Sciences University, Portland, Oregon.
Medicine, and.
Department of Pediatrics, Kaiser Permanente, San Francisco, California; and.
Department of Pediatrics, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California.



To determine if probiotic administration during the first 6 months of life decreases childhood asthma and eczema.


We conducted a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) supplementation on the cumulative incidence of eczema (primary end point) and asthma and rhinitis (secondary end points) in high-risk infants. For the first 6 months of life, intervention infants (n = 92) received a daily dose of 10 billion colony-forming units of LGG and 225 mg of inulin (Amerifit Brands, Cromwell, CT), and control infants (n = 92) received 325 mg of inulin alone. We used survival analysis methods to estimate disease incidences in the presence or absence of LGG and to estimate the efficacy of LGG in delaying or preventing these diseases.


Infants were accrued over a 6-year period (median follow-up: 4.6 years; 95% retention rate at 2 years). At 2 years of age, the estimated cumulative incidence of eczema was 30.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.4%-40.4%) in the control arm and 28.7% (95% CI, 19.4%-38.0%) in the LGG arm, for a hazard ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.59-1.53) (log-rank P = .83). At 5 years of age, the cumulative incidence of asthma was 17.4% (95% CI, 7.6%-27.1%) in the control arm and 9.7% (95% CI, 2.7%-16.6%) in the LGG arm, for a hazard ratio of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.41-1.87) (log-rank P = .25).


For high-risk infants, early LGG supplementation for the first 6 months of life does not appear to prevent the development of eczema or asthma at 2 years of age.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

POTENTIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Dr Lynch is a co-founder and serves on the board of directors for Siolta Therapeutics, a microbiome therapeutics company; Dr Cabana has served as a paid scientific consultant to BioGaia, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Nestlé, and Wyeth (unrelated to the current study), has received grant funding from Nestec (unrelated to the current study), and has served on the Merck Speakers Bureau for topics focused on medication adherence (unrelated to the current study); and the other authors have indicated they have no potential conflicts of interest to disclose.

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