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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017 Oct;132:27-35. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.07.005. Epub 2017 Jul 8.

Validation of the WHO-5 as a first-step screening instrument for depression in adults with diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia.

Author information

1
School of Psychology, Deakin University, 1 Geringhap Street, Geelong 3220, VIC, Australia; The Australian Centre for Behavioural Research in Diabetes, Diabetes Victoria, 570 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne 3000, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: j.halliday@deakin.edu.au.
2
School of Psychology, Deakin University, 1 Geringhap Street, Geelong 3220, VIC, Australia; The Australian Centre for Behavioural Research in Diabetes, Diabetes Victoria, 570 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne 3000, VIC, Australia.
3
Institute for Health and Ageing, Australian Catholic University, Level 6, 215 Spring Street, Melbourne 3000, VIC, Australia.
4
Center of Research on Psychological and Somatic Disorders (CoRPS), Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, PO Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands; Diabeter, Center for pediatric and adolescent diabetes care and research, Blaak 6, 3011 TA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Psychology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense M 5230, Denmark.
6
School of Psychology, Deakin University, 1 Geringhap Street, Geelong 3220, VIC, Australia; The Australian Centre for Behavioural Research in Diabetes, Diabetes Victoria, 570 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne 3000, VIC, Australia; AHP Research, Hornchurch, Essex, UK.

Abstract

AIMS:

Screening for depression is recommended internationally. The World Health Organization's 5-item Well-being Index (WHO-5) is used clinically to screen for depression but its empirical suitability for this purpose is not well documented. We investigated the psychometric properties of the WHO-5 and its suitability for identifying likely depression in Australian adults with diabetes.

METHODS:

The Diabetes MILES - Australia study dataset provided a sample of N=3249 who completed the WHO-5 (positively-worded 5-item measure of emotional well-being) and the PHQ-9 (9-item measure of depressive symptoms). Analyses were conducted for the full sample, and separately by diabetes type and treatment (type 1, non-insulin-treated type 2, and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes). Construct (convergent and factorial) validity and reliability of the WHO-5 were examined. ROC analyses were used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the WHO-5 as a depression screening instrument, comparing two commonly used WHO-5 cut-off values (≤7 and <13) with the PHQ-9.

RESULTS:

For the whole sample, the WHO-5 demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency reliability (α=0.90) and convergent validity with the PHQ-9 (r=-0.73, p<0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis partially supported factorial validity: Χ2(5)=834.94, p<0.001; RMSEA=0.23, 90% CI 0.21-0.24; CFI=0.98, TLI=0.96; factor loadings=0.78-0.92. The AUC was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.86-0.89, p<0.001). The sensitivity/specificity of the WHO-5 for detecting likely depression was 0.44/0.96 for the ≤7 cut-off, and 0.79/0.79 for the <13 cut-off, with similar findings by diabetes type and treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings support use of a WHO-5 cut-point of <13 to identify likely depression in Australian adults with diabetes, regardless of type/treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Depression; Diabetes mellitus; Factor analysis, statistical; Psychometrics; ROC curve; Surveys and questionnaires

PMID:
28783530
DOI:
10.1016/j.diabres.2017.07.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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