Send to

Choose Destination
Environ Res. 2017 Nov;159:95-102. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.07.050. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort.

Author information

MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden.
Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75141 Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, 751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Box 1105, 754 141 Uppsala.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Gerda Nilssons väg 5, 756 51 Uppsala, Sweden.
MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden; Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, 0349 Oslo, Norway.
MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, 70182 Örebro, Sweden. Electronic address:



In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden.


We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort.


The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model.


PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received.


The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends.


Drinking water; Longitudinal trend; PIVUS cohort; Perfluoroalkyl substances; Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center