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Pediatr Radiol. 2017 Aug;47(9):1160-1170. doi: 10.1007/s00247-017-3934-6. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Ultrasound imaging of synovial inflammation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA, 19104-4399, USA.
Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.


Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic entity of childhood. The hallmark feature of all subtypes is joint inflammation. Imaging is used to evaluate the extent and severity of inflammation, degree of joint damage and response to treatment, which in turn impacts patient management. Ultrasound has become a useful adjunct to clinical examination because it shows promise in evaluating clinical and subclinical inflammation (synovitis, enthesitis) as well as cartilage and bone erosive changes. However more collaborative research is needed to help define the normal appearance of the growing skeleton, clarify the significance of subclinical findings and develop useful definitions, imaging protocols and scoring systems of disease.


Children; Enthesitis; Juvenile idiopathic arthritis; Synovitis; Tendinitis – Tenosynovitis; Ultrasound

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