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Science. 2017 Aug 4;357(6350):512-515. doi: 10.1126/science.aam9425.

Genomic estimation of complex traits reveals ancient maize adaptation to temperate North America.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 175 Biotechnology Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
2
Research Group for Ancient Genomics and Evolution, Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstr. 35, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
3
Department of Biology, Schollmaier Science and Technology Center, Room 109, Texas Wesleyan University, Fort Worth, TX 76105, USA. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
4
Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, 6303 Northwest Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
5
Bioinformatics Facility, Institute of Biotechnology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
6
U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Post Office Box 7620, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7620, USA. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
7
Native Seeds/SEARCH, 3584 East River Road, Tucson, AZ 85718, USA.
8
USDA-ARS, Biotechnology Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
9
Native Seeds/SEARCH, 3584 East River Road, Tucson, AZ 85718, USA. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
10
Genomic Diversity Facility, 175 Institute of Biotechnology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
11
Department of Plant Sciences, Center for Population Biology, and Genome Center, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
12
Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco CP45110, Mexico. kelly.swarts@tuebingen.mpg.de hernan.burbano@tuebingen.mpg.de.
13
Institute of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
14
Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
15
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany.
16
Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, 6303 Northwest Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada.
17
Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Spemannstr. 35, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
18
USDA-ARS, Biotechnology Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Abstract

By 4000 years ago, people had introduced maize to the southwestern United States; full agriculture was established quickly in the lowland deserts but delayed in the temperate highlands for 2000 years. We test if the earliest upland maize was adapted for early flowering, a characteristic of modern temperate maize. We sequenced fifteen 1900-year-old maize cobs from Turkey Pen Shelter in the temperate Southwest. Indirectly validated genomic models predicted that Turkey Pen maize was marginally adapted with respect to flowering, as well as short, tillering, and segregating for yellow kernel color. Temperate adaptation drove modern population differentiation and was selected in situ from ancient standing variation. Validated prediction of polygenic traits improves our understanding of ancient phenotypes and the dynamics of environmental adaptation.

PMID:
28774930
DOI:
10.1126/science.aam9425
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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