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J Environ Sci (China). 2017 Aug;58:127-134. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2017.04.009. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Formation of iodo-trihalomethanes, iodo-haloacetic acids, and haloacetaldehydes during chlorination and chloramination of iodine containing waters in laboratory controlled reactions.

Author information

1
Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: cprqam@cid.csic.es.
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, United States.
3
Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain; Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona, Spain.

Abstract

Iodine containing disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) and haloacetaldehydes (HALs) are emerging disinfection by-product (DBP) classes of concern. The former due to its increased potential toxicity and the latter because it was found to be the third most relevant DBP class in mass in a U.S. nationwide drinking water study. These DBP classes have been scarcely investigated, and this work was performed to further explore their formation in drinking water under chlorination and chloramination scenarios. In order to do this, iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), iodo-haloacetic acids (I-HAAs) and selected HALs (mono-HALs and di-HALs species, including iodoacetaldehyde) were investigated in DBP mixtures generated after chlorination and chloramination of different water matrices containing different levels of bromide and iodide in laboratory controlled reactions. Results confirmed the enhancement of I-DBP formation in the presence of monochloramine. While I-THMs and I-HAAs contributed almost equally to total I-DBP concentrations in chlorinated water, I-THMs contributed the most to total I-DBP levels in the case of chloraminated water. The most abundant and common I-THM species generated were bromochloroiodomethane, dichloroiodomethane, and chlorodiiodomethane. Iodoacetic acid and chloroiodoacetic acid contributed the most to the total I-HAA concentrations measured in the investigated disinfected water. As for the studied HALs, dihalogenated species were the compounds that predominantly formed under both investigated treatments.

KEYWORDS:

Chloramination; Chlorination; Drinking water; Haloacetaldehydes; Iodinated disinfection by-products; Iodo-haloacetic acids; Iodo-trihalomethanes; Mass spectrometry

PMID:
28774601
DOI:
10.1016/j.jes.2017.04.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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