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Materials (Basel). 2017 Jan 13;10(1). pii: E66. doi: 10.3390/ma10010066.

Scaling-Up Techniques for the Nanofabrication of Cell Culture Substrates via Two-Photon Polymerization for Industrial-Scale Expansion of Stem Cells.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy. davide2.ricci@mail.polimi.it.
2
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy. michele.nava@polimi.it.
3
Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN)-CNR and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy. tommaso.zandrini@polimi.it.
4
Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN)-CNR and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy. giulio.cerullo@polimi.it.
5
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy. manuela.raimondi@polimi.it.
6
Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN)-CNR and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy. roberto.osellame@polimi.it.

Abstract

Stem-cell-based therapies require a high number (10⁶-10⁸) of cells, therefore in vitro expansion is needed because of the initially low amount of stem cells obtainable from human tissues. Standard protocols for stem cell expansion are currently based on chemically-defined culture media and animal-derived feeder-cell layers, which expose cells to additives and to xenogeneic compounds, resulting in potential issues when used in clinics. The two-photon laser polymerization technique enables three-dimensional micro-structures to be fabricated, which we named synthetic nichoids. Here we review our activity on the technological improvements in manufacturing biomimetic synthetic nichoids and, in particular on the optimization of the laser-material interaction to increase the patterned area and the percentage of cell culture surface covered by such synthetic nichoids, from a low initial value of 10% up to 88% with an optimized micromachining time. These results establish two-photon laser polymerization as a promising tool to fabricate substrates for stem cell expansion, without any chemical supplement and in feeder-free conditions for potential therapeutic uses.

KEYWORDS:

biomimetics; microfabrication; pluripotency maintenance; stem cell expansion; synthetic nichoids; two-photon laser polymerization

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