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Annu Rev Neurosci. 2017 Jul 25;40:453-477. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-070815-013906.

What Have We Learned About Movement Disorders from Functional Neurosurgery?

Author information

1
Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada; email: lozano@uhnresearch.ca , whutch@uhnres.utoronto.ca , suneil.kalia@uhn.ca.
2
Krembil Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada.

Abstract

Modern functional neurosurgery for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, tremor, and dystonia involves the placement of focal lesions or the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) within circuits that modulate motor function. Precise targeting of these motor structures can be further refined by the use of electrophysiological approaches. In particular, microelectrode recordings enable the delineation of neuroanatomic structures. In the course of these operations, there is an opportunity not only to map basal ganglia structures but also to gain insights into how disturbances in neural activity produce movement disorders. In this review, we aim to highlight what the field has uncovered thus far about movement disorders through DBS. The work to date lays the foundation for future studies that will shed further light on dysfunctional circuits mediating diseases of the nervous system and how we might modulate these circuits therapeutically.

KEYWORDS:

Parkinson's disease; basal ganglia; deep brain stimulation (DBS); dystonia; microelectrode recordings; tremor

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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