Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Biol Chem. 2017 Sep 15;292(37):15525-15537. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.771931. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is necessary for prostate cancer metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Author information

1
From the Center for Translational Cancer Research, Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and.
2
the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.
3
From the Center for Translational Cancer Research, Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and mliu@ibt.tamhsc.edu.

Abstract

Prostate cancer is a highly penetrant disease among men in industrialized societies, but the factors regulating the transition from indolent to aggressive and metastatic cancer remain poorly understood. We found that men with prostate cancers expressing high levels of the G protein-coupled receptor LGR4 had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival compared with patients with cancers having low LGR4 expression. LGR4 expression was elevated in human prostate cancer cell lines with metastatic potential. We therefore generated a novel transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse model to investigate the role of Lgr4 in prostate cancer development and metastasis in vivo TRAMP Lgr4-/- mice exhibited an initial delay in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia formation, but the frequency of tumor formation was equivalent between TRAMP and TRAMP Lgr4-/- mice by 12 weeks. The loss of Lgr4 significantly improved TRAMP mouse survival and dramatically reduced the occurrence of lung metastases. LGR4 knockdown impaired the migration, invasion, and colony formation of DU145 cells and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as demonstrated by up-regulation of E-cadherin and decreased expression of the EMT transcription factors ZEB, Twist, and Snail. Overexpression of LGR4 in LNCaP cells had the opposite effects. Orthotopic injection of DU145 cells stably expressing shRNA targeting LGR4 resulted in decreased xenograft tumor size, reduced tumor EMT marker expression, and impaired metastasis, in accord with our findings in TRAMP Lgr4-/- mice. In conclusion, we propose that Lgr4 is a key protein necessary for prostate cancer EMT and metastasis.

KEYWORDS:

G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR); Lgr4; Snail; epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT); metastasis; mouse; prostate cancer

PMID:
28768769
PMCID:
PMC5602409
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M116.771931
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center