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Nat Commun. 2017 Aug 1;8(1):169. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00246-8.

Oropharyngeal mucosal transmission of Zika virus in rhesus macaques.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 3170 UW Medical Foundation Centennial Building, 1685 Highland Ave., Madison, WI, 53705, USA.
2
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, 2015 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
3
Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI, 53715, USA.
4
Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Clinical Science Center, 600 Highland Ave., Madison, WI, 53792, USA.
5
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, 2015 Linden Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA. thomasf@primate.wisc.edu.
6
Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 1220 Capitol Ct., Madison, WI, 53715, USA. thomasf@primate.wisc.edu.

Abstract

Zika virus is present in urine, saliva, tears, and breast milk, but the transmission risk associated with these body fluids is currently unknown. Here we evaluate the risk of Zika virus transmission through mucosal contact in rhesus macaques. Application of high-dose Zika virus directly to the tonsils of three rhesus macaques results in detectable plasma viremia in all animals by 2 days post-exposure; virus replication kinetics are similar to those observed in animals infected subcutaneously. Three additional macaques inoculated subcutaneously with Zika virus served as saliva donors to assess the transmission risk from contact with oral secretions from an infected individual. Seven naive animals repeatedly exposed to donor saliva via the conjunctivae, tonsils, or nostrils did not become infected. Our results suggest that there is a risk of Zika virus transmission via the mucosal route, but that the risk posed by oral secretions from individuals with a typical course of Zika virus infection is low.Zika virus (ZIKV) is present in body fluids, including saliva, but transmission risk through mucosal contact is not well known. Here, the authors show that oropharyngeal mucosal infection of macaques with a high ZIKV dose results in viremia, but that transmission risk from saliva of infected animals is low.

PMID:
28765581
PMCID:
PMC5539107
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-017-00246-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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