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Iran J Parasitol. 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):1-11.

Visceral Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran: A Narrative Review.

Author information

1
Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
2
Tropical and Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
3
Afzalipour Hospital, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
4
Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5
Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
6
Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has strong links with poverty, substantial medical and veterinary impacts. This review aimed to focus in studies published during 1994-2016 on VL in southeastern Iran.

METHODS:

The present review is based on expert knowledge and historical studies published during the past 23 yr (1994-2016) on VL in southeastern Iran. In addition, related literature found in PubMed by using the keywords such as visceral leishmaniasis, kala-azar, and Leishmania infantum are included.

RESULTS:

Overall, 118 children aged 4.2 yr were detected as infected with human VL (HVL). The majority of the cases were from Orzoieh district (37.1%) in southwest of Kerman Province, followed by Sirjan (15.7%), Jiroft (14.8%), Kahnuj (9.3%) and to lesser extent from other areas. The male to female ratio was 1.7. The three most frequent clinical features were represented by fever (100.0%), anemia (95.0%) and splenomegaly (91.5%). Altogether, 42.0% of the VL cases developed secondary bacterial infections, the overall case-fatality rate was 3.4%, and majorities (88.0%) of the VL patients were undernourished. Overall, 733 dogs and wild canines were examined by different techniques with various seroprevalence ranges.

CONCLUSION:

In southeastern Iran, VL is endemic in Orzoieh district in Kerman Province. While the dogs are implicated as the main domestic reservoir of VL, wide range of wild canines can serve as a secondary potential reservoir host.

KEYWORDS:

Iran; Kala-azar; Leishmania infantum; Visceral leishmaniasis

PMID:
28761456
PMCID:
PMC5522684

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