Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Aug 22;114(34):E7150-E7158. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1710519114. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Cytokine signature associated with disease severity in chronic fatigue syndrome patients.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.
2
Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine; Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.
3
Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.
4
Stanford Human Immune Monitoring Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.
6
Department of Anesthesiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.
7
Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305; mmdavis@stanford.edu.
8
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.

Abstract

Although some signs of inflammation have been reported previously in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), the data are limited and contradictory. High-throughput methods now allow us to interrogate the human immune system for multiple markers of inflammation at a scale that was not previously possible. To determine whether a signature of serum cytokines could be associated with ME/CFS and correlated with disease severity and fatigue duration, cytokines of 192 ME/CFS patients and 392 healthy controls were measured using a 51-multiplex array on a Luminex system. Each cytokine's preprocessed data were regressed on ME/CFS severity plus covariates for age, sex, race, and an assay property of newly discovered importance: nonspecific binding. On average, TGF-β was elevated (P = 0.0052) and resistin was lower (P = 0.0052) in patients compared with controls. Seventeen cytokines had a statistically significant upward linear trend that correlated with ME/CFS severity: CCL11 (Eotaxin-1), CXCL1 (GROα), CXCL10 (IP-10), IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17F, leptin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, LIF, NGF, SCF, and TGF-α. Of the 17 cytokines that correlated with severity, 13 are proinflammatory, likely contributing to many of the symptoms experienced by patients and establishing a strong immune system component of the disease. Only CXCL9 (MIG) inversely correlated with fatigue duration.

KEYWORDS:

chronic fatigue syndrome; cytokines; immune monitoring; myalgic encephalomyelitis; severity

PMID:
28760971
PMCID:
PMC5576836
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1710519114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center