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Melanoma Manag. 2017 Mar;4(1):13-37. doi: 10.2217/mmt-2016-0022. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Skin cancer screening: recommendations for data-driven screening guidelines and a review of the US Preventive Services Task Force controversy.

Johnson MM1,1, Leachman SA1,1, Aspinwall LG2,2, Cranmer LD3,3, Curiel-Lewandrowski C4,4, Sondak VK5,5, Stemwedel CE6,6, Swetter SM7,7, Vetto J6,6, Bowles T8,8, Dellavalle RP9,9, Geskin LJ10,10, Grossman D2,2, Grossmann KF2,2, Hawkes JE2,2, Jeter JM11,11, Kim CC12,12, Kirkwood JM13,13, Mangold AR14,14, Meyskens F15,15, Ming ME16,16, Nelson KC17,17, Piepkorn M3,3, Pollack BP18,18, Robinson JK19,19, Sober AJ12,12, Trotter S11,11, Venna SS20,20, Agarwala S21,21, Alani R22,22, Averbook B23,23, Bar A6,6, Becevic M24,24, Box N9,9, E Carson W 3rd11,11, Cassidy PB6,6, Chen SC18,18, Chu EY16,16, Ellis DL25,25, Ferris LK13,13, Fisher DE26,26, Kendra K11,11, Lawson DH27,27, Leming PD28,28, Margolin KA29,29, Markovic S30,30, Martini MC19,19, Miller D6,6, Sahni D22,22, Sharfman WH31,31, Stein J32,32, Stratigos AJ33,33, Tarhini A13,13, Taylor MH6,6, Wisco OJ34,34, Wong MK35,35.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3303 SW Bond Ave., Portland, OR, USA.
2
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
3
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
4
University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ, USA.
5
Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.
6
Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
7
Stanford University Medical Center & VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
8
Intermountain Healthcare & University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
9
University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.
10
Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
11
The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
12
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
13
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
14
Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.
15
University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.
16
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
17
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
18
Emory University & Atlanta VA Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, USA.
19
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL USA.
20
Inova Medical Group, Fairfax, VA, USA.
21
St Luke's University Hospital & Temple University, Bethlehem, PA, USA.
22
Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.
23
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
24
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
25
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.
26
Harvard Medical School & Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.
27
Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
28
The Christ Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
29
City of Hope National Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA.
30
Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA.
31
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
32
NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
33
Department of Dermatology, University of Athens, Andreas Sygros Hospital, Athens, Greece.
34
Bend Memorial Clinic, Bend, OR, USA.
35
University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Abstract

Melanoma is usually apparent on the skin and readily detected by trained medical providers using a routine total body skin examination, yet this malignancy is responsible for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Currently, there is no national consensus on skin cancer screening in the USA, but dermatologists and primary care providers are routinely confronted with making the decision about when to recommend total body skin examinations and at what interval. The objectives of this paper are: to propose rational, risk-based, data-driven guidelines commensurate with the US Preventive Services Task Force screening guidelines for other disorders; to compare our proposed guidelines to recommendations made by other national and international organizations; and to review the US Preventive Services Task Force's 2016 Draft Recommendation Statement on skin cancer screening.

KEYWORDS:

USPSTF; early detection; guidelines; keratinocyte carcinoma; melanoma; melanoma odds ratio; melanoma relative risk; melanoma risk factors; screening; skin cancer

Conflict of interest statement

Financial & competing interests disclosure The authors have no relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript. This includes employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, or royalties. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.

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