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Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017 Apr-Jun;29(2):79-83. doi: 10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_20_17.

Pathophysiology of benign prostate enlargement and lower urinary tract symptoms: Current concepts.

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Department of Urology, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.


Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent in the aging population, particularly in men. Historically, prostate enlargement was thought to be responsible for most cases of male LUTS. Several risk factors for the development of benign prostate enlargement/hyperplasia (BPE/BPH) have been identified, including age, genetics, hormones, growth factors, inflammation, and lifestyle factors. However, as our knowledge continues to evolve, male LUTS are no longer managed entirely in a prostate-centric fashion. In this article, we review current concepts in the epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of BPE/BPH and male LUTS.


Benign prostate enlargement; Benign prostate hyperplasia; Bladder outlet obstruction; Lower urinary tract symptoms

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