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Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017 Nov;1861(11 Pt A):2766-2777. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.07.022. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Differentiating physicochemical properties between NDRIs and sNRIs clinically important for the treatment of ADHD.

Author information

1
Innovative Drug Research and Bioinformatics Group, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Huanghuai University, Zhumadian 463000, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China.
2
Innovative Drug Research and Bioinformatics Group, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China.
3
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China. Electronic address: xueww@cqu.edu.cn.
4
Bioinformatics and Drug Design Group, Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.
5
State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.
6
Innovative Drug Research and Bioinformatics Group, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China. Electronic address: zhufeng.ns@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Drugs available for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are mainly selective norepinephrine (sNRIs) and dual norepinephrine-dopamine (NDRIs) reuptake inhibitors. The major problem of sNRIs lines in their delayed onset of action and partial- or non-responses, which makes NDRIs distinguished in drug efficacy. Understanding of the differential binding modes of these 2 types of drugs to their corresponding targets can give great insights into the discovery of privileged drug-like scaffolds with improved efficacy. So far, no such study has been carried out.

METHODS:

A combinatorial computational strategy, integrating homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) and binding free energy calculation, was employed to analyze the binding modes of 8 clinically important ADHD drugs in their targets.

RESULTS:

Binding modes of 2 types of ADHD drugs (sNRIs and NDRIs) in their targets was identified for the first time by MD simulation, and 15 hot spot residues were discovered as crucial for NDRIs' binding in hNET and hDAT. Comparing to sNRIs, a clear reduction in the hydrophobic property of NDRIs' one functional group was observed, and the depth of drugs' aromatic ring stretched into the pocket of both targets was further identified as key contributors to drugs' selectivity.

CONCLUSIONS:

The hydrophobic property of NDRI ADHD drugs' one functional group contributes to their selectivity when bind hNET and hDAT.

GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:

These results provide insights into NDRI ADHD drugs' binding mechanisms, which could be utilized as structural blueprints for assessing and discovering more efficacious drugs for ADHD therapy.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Binding mode; Molecular dynamics; Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors; Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

PMID:
28757337
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.07.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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