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Med Mal Infect. 2017 Nov;47(7):443-452. doi: 10.1016/j.medmal.2017.06.006. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Update on childhood and adult infectious tracheitis.

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Département de maladies infectieuses, CHU, 21000 Dijon, France; Inserm, LNC UMR866, 21000 Dijon, France. Electronic address:
Service de pédiatrie 1, CHU, 21000 Dijon, France.
Service de pneumologie, CHU, 21000 Dijon, France.
Département de maladies infectieuses, CHU, 21000 Dijon, France.


The trachea is a pivotal organ of the respiratory tract. Rather than a genuine anatomic border, it acts as a crossroad in all respiratory infectious processes. Even though not strictly limited to the trachea, infections such as laryngotracheitis and tracheobronchitis are frequently diagnosed in children, in particular during the winter season. Infectious tracheitis etiologies are diverse and the distinction between viral and bacterial origins, albeit difficult, remains relevant considering the substantial differences in terms of gravity and therapeutic management. This literature review summarizes the microbiological and clinical aspects of community-acquired and nosocomial tracheitis in adults and children, as well as the adequate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. It also highlights the emergence of fungal tracheitis in immunocompromised patients, of ventilator-associated tracheitis in intensive care medicine, and beyond all that the potential short and long-term consequences of tracheitis.


Croup; Tracheitis; Trachéite; Trachéite acquise sous ventilation; Ventilator-associated tracheitis

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