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BMC Biol. 2017 Jul 31;15(1):62. doi: 10.1186/s12915-017-0399-x.

The house spider genome reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication during arachnid evolution.

Author information

1
Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 198 Riverside Street, Lowell, MA, 01854, USA.
3
Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
4
Department of Biology, Washington and Lee University, 204 West Washington Street, Lexington, VA, 24450, USA.
5
Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.
6
J. Craig Venter Institute, 9714 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.
7
Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Walther-Rathenau-Str. 47, 17487, Greifswald, Germany.
8
Department for Developmental Biology, University Goettingen, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach-Institut for Zoology and Anthropology, GZMB Ernst-Caspari-Haus, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077, Goettingen, Germany.
9
Department of Developmental Biology, University of Cologne, Cologne Biocenter, Institute of Zoology, Zuelpicher Straße 47b, 50674, Cologne, Germany.
10
JT Biohistory Research Hall, 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka, 569-1125, Japan.
11
Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan.
12
Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability, California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA, 94118, USA.
13
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 116, building 1540, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.
14
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
15
Department of Genetics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Philosophenweg 12, 07743, Jena, Germany.
16
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.
17
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, MRC-163, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, USA.
18
Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, D.1416 Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.
19
Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, 10024, USA.
20
Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden.
21
Centro Andaluz de Biología del Desarrollo (CABD), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas/Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain.
22
Nucleo em Ecologia e Desenvolvimento SocioAmbiental de Macaé (NUPEM), Campus Macaé, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, 27941-222, Brazil.
23
School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS, London, UK.
24
Evolution and Optics of Nanostructure group (EON), Biology Department, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.
25
Biology Department, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 14627, USA.
26
Humboldt-Universität of Berlin, Institut für Biologie, Philippstr.13, 10115, Berlin, Germany.
27
Department of Evolutionary Developmental Genetics, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach-Institute, GZMB, Georg-August-University, Göttingen Campus, Justus von Liebig Weg 11, 37077, Göttingen, Germany. gbucher1@gwdg.de.
28
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. agibbs@bcm.edu.
29
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, MRC-163, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, USA. coddington@si.edu.
30
JT Biohistory Research Hall, 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka, 569-1125, Japan. hoda@brh.co.jp.
31
Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. hoda@brh.co.jp.
32
Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, Walther-Rathenau-Str. 47, 17487, Greifswald, Germany. mario.stanke@uni-greifswald.de.
33
Department of Biology, Washington and Lee University, 204 West Washington Street, Lexington, VA, 24450, USA. ayoubn@wlu.edu.
34
Department for Developmental Biology, University Goettingen, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach-Institut for Zoology and Anthropology, GZMB Ernst-Caspari-Haus, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077, Goettingen, Germany. nprpic@uni-goettingen.de.
35
Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Evolutionary Biology & Ecology, C.P. 160/12, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, 1050, Brussels, Belgium. jflot@ulb.ac.be.
36
Department for Developmental Biology, University Goettingen, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach-Institut for Zoology and Anthropology, GZMB Ernst-Caspari-Haus, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, 37077, Goettingen, Germany. nico.posnien@biologie.uni-goettingen.de.
37
Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. stephenr@bcm.edu.
38
Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK. amcgregor@brookes.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The duplication of genes can occur through various mechanisms and is thought to make a major contribution to the evolutionary diversification of organisms. There is increasing evidence for a large-scale duplication of genes in some chelicerate lineages including two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in horseshoe crabs. To investigate this further, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

RESULTS:

We found pervasive duplication of both coding and non-coding genes in this spider, including two clusters of Hox genes. Analysis of synteny conservation across the P. tepidariorum genome suggests that there has been an ancient WGD in spiders. Comparison with the genomes of other chelicerates, including that of the newly sequenced bark scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus, suggests that this event occurred in the common ancestor of spiders and scorpions, and is probably independent of the WGDs in horseshoe crabs. Furthermore, characterization of the sequence and expression of the Hox paralogs in P. tepidariorum suggests that many have been subject to neo-functionalization and/or sub-functionalization since their duplication.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results reveal that spiders and scorpions are likely the descendants of a polyploid ancestor that lived more than 450 MYA. Given the extensive morphological diversity and ecological adaptations found among these animals, rivaling those of vertebrates, our study of the ancient WGD event in Arachnopulmonata provides a new comparative platform to explore common and divergent evolutionary outcomes of polyploidization events across eukaryotes.

KEYWORDS:

Centruroides sculpturatus; Evolution; Gene duplication; Genome; Hox genes; Parasteatoda tepidariorum

PMID:
28756775
PMCID:
PMC5535294
DOI:
10.1186/s12915-017-0399-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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