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Am J Prev Med. 2017 Dec;53(6):866-871. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.05.021. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Use and Perceptions of Caffeinated Energy Drinks and Energy Shots in Canada.

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School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:



In Canada, energy drinks and energy shots are currently classified and regulated differently (food and drugs versus natural health products, respectively), on the assumption that they are used and perceived differently. The current study examined potential differences in use and perceptions of energy drinks and shots.


An online survey was conducted in 2015 using a national commercial online panel of youth and young adults aged 12-24 years (n=2,040 retained for analysis in 2016). Participants were randomized to view an image of an energy shot or drink, and were asked about 14 potential reasons for using the product. Past consumption of each product was also assessed. Chi-square and t-tests were conducted to examine differences in use and perceptions between products.


Overall, 15.6% of respondents reported using both energy shots and drinks. Of all respondents, <1% had tried only energy shots, whereas 58.0% had tried only energy drinks. For each product, the most commonly reported reasons for use were "to stay awake" and "to increase concentration or alertness." Out of 14 potential reasons for use, respondents were significantly more likely to endorse seven of the reasons for energy drinks rather than shots; however, the magnitude of these differences was modest and the ordering of the reasons for use of each product was comparable.


Despite differences in prevalence of ever-use of energy shots and drinks, consumption patterns and perceived reasons for using the products are similar. The findings provide little support for regulating energy shots differently than energy drinks.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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