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J Gen Intern Med. 2017 Dec;32(12):1294-1300. doi: 10.1007/s11606-017-4134-7. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Provider Experiences with Chronic Care Management (CCM) Services and Fees: A Qualitative Research Study.

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Mathematica Policy Research, 1100 First St., NE, 12th Floor, Washington, DC, 20002-4221, USA.
Mathematica Policy Research, 1100 First St., NE, 12th Floor, Washington, DC, 20002-4221, USA.
The Innovation Center (CMMI), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Baltimore, MD, USA.



Support for ongoing care management and coordination between office visits for patients with multiple chronic conditions has been inadequate. In January 2015, Medicare introduced the Chronic Care Management (CCM) payment policy, which reimburses providers for CCM activities for Medicare beneficiaries occurring outside of office visits.


To explore the experiences, facilitators, and challenges of practices providing CCM services, and their implications going forward.


Semi-structured telephone interviews from January to April 2016 with 71 respondents.


Sixty billing and non-billing providers and practice staff knowledgeable about their practices' CCM services, and 11 professional society representatives.


Practice respondents noted that most patients expressed positive views of CCM services. Practice respondents also perceived several patient benefits, including improved adherence to treatment, access to care team members, satisfaction, care continuity, and care coordination. Facilitators of CCM provision included having an in-practice care manager, patient-centered medical home recognition, experience developing care plans, patient trust in their provider, and supplemental insurance to cover CCM copayments. Most billing practices reported few problems obtaining patients' consent for CCM, though providers felt that CMS could better facilitate consent by marketing CCM's goals to beneficiaries. Barriers reported by professional society representatives and by billing and non-billing providers included inadequacy of CCM payments to cover upfront investments for staffing, workflow modification, and time needed to manage complex patients. Other barriers included inadequate infrastructure for health information exchange with other providers and limited electronic health record capabilities for documenting and updating care plans. Practices owned by hospital systems and large medical groups faced greater bureaucracy in implementing CCM than did smaller, independent practices.


Improving providers' experiences with and uptake of CCM will require addressing several challenges, including the upfront investment for CCM set-up and the time required to provide CCM to more complex patients.


care management; chronic care; coordination of care; health care delivery system; payment policy; primary health care

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