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Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 28;7(1):6803. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07074-2.

Assessments of iodoindoles and abamectin as inducers of methuosis in pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, 38541, Republic of Korea.
Shandong University-Helmholtz Institute of Biotechnology, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan, P.R. China.
School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, 38541, Republic of Korea.


Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantined migratory endoparasite known to cause severe economic losses in pine forest ecosystems. The study presents the nematicidal effects of halogenated indoles on B. xylophilus and their action mechanisms. 5-Iodoindole and abamectin (positive control) at low concentration (10 µg/mL) presented similar and high nematicidal activities against B. xylophilus. 5-Iodoindole diminished fecundity, reproductive activities, embryonic and juvenile lethality and locomotor behaviors. Molecular interactions of ligands with invertebrate-specific glutamate gated chloride channel receptor reinforced the notion that 5-iodoindole, like abamectin, rigidly binds to the active sites of the receptor. 5-Iodoindole also induced diverse phenotypic deformities in nematodes including abnormal organ disruption/shrinkage and increased vacuolization. These findings suggest the prospective role of vacuoles in nematode death by methuosis. Importantly, 5-iodoindole was nontoxic to two plants, Brassica oleracea and Raphanus raphanistrum. Henceforth, the study warrants the application of iodoindoles in ecological environments to control the devastating pine destruction by B. xylophilus.

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