Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 28;7(1):6841. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07359-6.

Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

Author information

1
Institute of Cancer Research and Translational Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. antti.koskela@oulu.fi.
2
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Chemicals and Health Unit, Kuopio, Finland.
3
Institute of Cancer Research and Translational Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
4
Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Abstract

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

PMID:
28754927
PMCID:
PMC5533791
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-017-07359-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center