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Nutr J. 2017 Jul 28;16(1):46. doi: 10.1186/s12937-017-0267-0.

Determinants of eating patterns and nutrient intake among adolescent athletes: a systematic review.

Author information

1
Instituto Federal Goiano - Campus Ceres, Rodovia GO-154 - Km 3, Ceres, Goiás, GO, 76300-000, Brazil. matiasnoll@yahoo.com.br.
2
Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil. matiasnoll@yahoo.com.br.
3
Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil.
4
Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiás, Brazil. erikasil@terra.com.br.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This review aims to update the influences of sport modalities, sport performance, and non-exercise-related determinant, on eating patterns and nutrient intake outcomes among adolescent competitive athletes.

METHODS:

The PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for the last 20 years. Observational and intervention studies of all languages on eating patterns and nutrient intake in adolescent (10- to 19-year-old) competitive athletes were included. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using a Downs and Black instrument. Moreover, the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) evidence system was used to assess the strength of the body of evidence.

RESULTS:

Regarding outcomes of 21 included articles, 95.2% of studies focused on nutrient analysis, whereas few of the included articles reported eating patterns. As determinants, most studies analyzed the influences of sport-related (n = 10) and demographic factors (n = 8), among which only sport modalities were significantly associated with nutrient intake. Age and sex were not significantly associated with nutrient intake. All studies were observational, and most were cross-sectional (n = 17) and conducted in developed countries such as the United States and European nations. Most studies evaluated boys, and the sport that received the most attention was soccer.

CONCLUSIONS:

Athletes do not adjust their nutrient intake or food choice to the demands of the training load or different training sessions, while sport modalities significantly influenced nutrient intake. Moreover, results concerning demographic determinants were inconsistent and thus remain inconclusive.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Prospero CRD42016043310 .

KEYWORDS:

Dietary intake; Eating behavior; Nutrition; Sport; Youth; food intake

PMID:
28754133
PMCID:
PMC5534032
DOI:
10.1186/s12937-017-0267-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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